Mobile Phone Cameras in Teaching and Learning

My latest “Teaching with Tech” column for MAA Focus just published this week.

Phone Cameras Handle Information in a Snap!

Teaching with Tech: Phone Cameras Handle Information in a Snap!

 

Here are the general topic areas:

  • Carrying a library of “good problems” with you for topics you are teaching.
  • Transfer an application problem to the computer/projector in your classroom.
  • Share your lecture notes from class (from a blackboard, whiteboard, or document camera).
  • Keep notes from a meeting.
  • Make a copy of a handout or meeting agenda.
  • Share student work for discussion about good methods or errors in thinking.
  • Answer emailed questions easily.
  • Tips for Conferences

Phone Cameras Handle Information in a Snap!

Archive of Teaching with Tech Columns

 

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Collecting Learning Notebooks in an Online Course

In a prior post, I discussed how I’m using Learning Notebooks to encourage students to carefully think through the mathematical steps and notation for solving problems.

I promised that I would explain how students complete this assignment in an online course, so today I’ve made a video, Collecting Learning Notebooks in an Online Course to show you the process I’m using inside of Instructure Canvas.  The process should be similar for other Learning Management Systems (though it may not be quite this easy).

Here’s the process.  Students still complete their Learning Notebook exactly how they do in a traditional class. I encourage them to keep a Table of Contents so that they can quickly find their assignments and make sure they are complete. Again, this was discussed in a prior post. The turning in part is a bit different for an online course.

I want to collect ten random problems from the students. So first, I create a Question Bank (or test bank) of 18-20 problems.  The problems look something like this:

Example problem from the Question Bank. [click on image to enlarge

In the actual assignment, I tell the Quiz to pull ten problems at random from the Question Bank.  This is a timed assignment, and I figure that 45 minutes should be plenty of time to take 10 photos or scans and upload them, even on cruddy Internet like mine.

How do students take their photos?

  • Digital cameras
  • Webcams (I required them for this course)
  • Scanners
  • Multi-function printer/scanners
  • Cell phone cameras

How do they get the image to the quiz?  They have to get the image to their computer screen and then use Jing to create a URL for the page they want to share.

Here are a few examples [click on the images to enlarge]:

Handwritten student work shared with a camera.

Handwritten student work scanned and shared with Jing.

Handwritten work shared with a webcam and Jing. (permission granted by student to share photo)

Then I grade the quizzes. Done!

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Analysis of Online Whiteboard Tools

NOTE: This post was revised considerably on 5/31/12 after a followup use with Dabbleboard proved to be awful.  Given this new development, I have to recommend Scribblar and I will plan to have a “backup” whiteboard handy in case the chosen system is “having a bad day.”

When I meet students online for office hours, it’s vitally important that we have an shared online whiteboard to use as a space to do problems.  These online whiteboard tools tend to come and go, so don’t shoot the messenger when one of the tools in the list below disappears. The good news is that these types of tools seem to pop up on the Internet all the time, so where one disappears, three others take its place.

Solving a problem in DabbleBoard

Solving a problem in Scribblar

I’ve been on a search for my “perfect” online whiteboard this week, so I thought I would run through several of the available options, and do my “math teacher analysis” for each.  I use the Chat interface in Canvas to see and hear my students, so I’m really only concerned with finding the “perfect” drawing space.  I paste the URL for the whiteboard in the text chat window, and we can all view the drawing screen from that link.

Here are some of the features I find important in an interactive whiteboard:

  • Large writing space
  • Ability to quickly clear the screen
  • Ability to add more space to the whiteboard or go quickly to a 2nd screen
  • Responsiveness of the pen with freehand drawing
  • Colored ink
  • Highlighting tools
  • Easy ability to share the board with students (ex: by pasting a URL into a chat window)
  • Ability to add a graphing grid or image

This morning I took a look at the following online whiteboard tools:

For the record, none of these tools will work on an iPad.  They all run using Flash and/or Java plugins.  The native Canvas Chat is actually Tinychat, and there is a whiteboard plugin included. However, it’s Flockdraw, and of all the tools I tested this morning, it is in the bottom two in terms of performance (toss up between Flockdraw and Google Draw for worst tool).  Here’s my detailed analysis of the six online whiteboard tools.

Analysis of Online Interactive Whiteboards (click on image to enlarge)

In the “War of the Online Whiteboards” I was torn between Dabbleboard and Scribblar.  I listed Dabbleboard as my top choice on Wednesday, but then its performance on Thursday was so horrid I’ve reversed my decision.  Scribblar has a couple of advantages: highlighter pens (the only tool I looked at that included this option for drawing) and if you do splurge for a Pro account there is a built-in WolframAlpha button which pastes the output of a WolframAlpha search directly to your screen.  The only downside of Scribblar is that students are prompted to “login” when they follow the URL to the whiteboard.  They don’t really have to login, they just have to provide a username for the board, but you will probably have to explain this to every single student that follows the link (sigh).

Guide to Dabbleboard (click on image to enlarge)

 

Guide to Scribblar (click on image to enlarge)

My recommendation for math teachers using the Instructure Canvas Chat: Ditch the Flockdraw whiteboard and create a “permanent space” in Scribblar or Dabbleboard (both will require you to create a free account for a permanent room) where you can keep a collection of all the pages you’ve used for a given class.  Create a different space for each class.  Then paste (or re-paste) the URL to the room URL  into the text chat whenever a new student arrives in Canvas Chat (since they don’t see the past history of the chat).

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Learning Notebooks for Online Math Homework

After teaching math at a community college for 10 years (and using online homework for at least 7 of those), I have noticed that my online math students don’t seem to have the same grasp on notation and the steps to “prove” the solution to a problem as when they did old-fashioned paper & pencil homework.  I have also found that the students who use online homework have become much more unorganized, and are unable to find the work for the problems they have questions on.

 

Example of student work in a Learning Notebook

This last year, I’ve been experimenting with what I call a “Learning Notebook” – where students keep an organized notebook of the handwritten work for selected problems from the online homework system. In these Learning Notebooks, the students have to show the steps required to complete the required problems (including all necessary graphs and proper notation).  They don’t have to keep a record of every problem, since some questions can be answered by inspection alone. For the Learning Notebook, I typically choose problems that would require me to show steps in order to complete it with a reasonable confidence in my answer.   The online homework, graded on accuracy, is worth 20 points per unit.  The Learning Notebook, showing sound mathematical thinking and notation for required problems, is worth an equal weight of 20 points.

The student is responsible for keeping the notebook organized, including a Table of Contents and page numbers (these help me to find assignments when I go to grade the notebooks).  While this may seem like busywork, keeping a notebook has several benefits to the student:

  • When studying for an exam, the student can find the work associated with each problem quickly.
  • When there’s a question on a specific problem, the student can quickly find their version of the problem and what they tried.
  • Repetition of the use of proper notation leads to better outcomes on the exams (since they don’t “forget” to include the notation there when they are required to have it in their notebooks).
  • Thoughtful reflection on the problem steps may be more likely when they slow down to write the steps down instead of trying to do too much in their head.
  • Students get points for showing their work, which can act as a slight padding of their grade when the tests are hard (which they inevitably are).
One of the additional benefits of the Learning Notebooks is that it gives me a “place” to collect additional assignments that can’t easily be covered by online homework.  For example:
  • Sketching the graph of a function given a list of properties
  • Explaining the transformations of a graph in multiple steps
  • Proving that a series converges or diverges
  • Explaining all the properties of a rational function

A collection of Learning Notebooks on exam day.

For my traditional classes (that include an in-person meeting) I grade the Learning Notebooks while the students give the exam. I select ten problems at random to check for completion, notation, and supporting steps.  I typically give a 2-hour exam, and I can grade the notebooks for 15-25 students by the end of that time.  This is when it becomes vitally important to me that the students include a Table of Contents and numbered pages.  Without those, I would spend a lot of extra time searching for assignments.  I use a 0-1-2 point scale for each of the ten problems.

  • 0 points = the problem cannot be found, there was only a problem and answer,  or there was no reasonable attempt to solve the problem
  • 1 point = some reasonable attempt to solve the problem, but details missing or problem is incomplete
  • 2 points = problem is completely solved, with all appropriate details included
After I have worked through all 10 problems, I give the student a score out of 20.
To help you understand the process a little better, I asked a few students to let me share their notebooks and the grading process.  They agreed, so here’s a little video explanation of how the process works.

Video: Learning Notebooks for Online Math Homework

Here is a Sample Table of Contents and Sample Notebook Check for the Learning Notebooks.

Because they have to keep a Learning Notebook, students know that they shouldn’t cut corners when they work through problems.  At first, many will try, rushing through the online homework (probably with the aid of calculators and WolframAlpha) with the belief that they will just “take a few minutes to go back and write up the steps.”  For this reason, you shouldn’t be surprised if the grades for the first set of Notebooks are pretty bipolar (half will be great, half will be awful).  It turns out that to actually think through and write the math takes time, time that some of these students have been cutting corners on ever since online homework was first introduced.

I’ve been using these notebooks in Math for Elementary Teachers, College Algebra, Calculus I, and Calculus II over the last year, and have seen an improvement in mathematical thinking, use of notation, and study habits for those students that keep good notebooks.  I don’t have any scientific evidence, but overall, I feel like these Learning Notebooks are helping improve my students’ success.

NOTE: In about a week, I will share how I’m using the same strategy in my online classes.  I want to get all the way through the process of collection once before I write about it.  Hint: It involves webcams and cell phone cameras.

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Seamless SAVI Chat in Instructure Canvas

UPDATE: Unfortunately, the video chat service provided in Canvas was turned off in Fall 2012. It has now been replaced with a Text Chat that is built in to Canvas, but no video.


Can your LMS do this? What did student have to do to join me? Click on the Chat button, then click to share their webcam. Seamless. This is what I love about Instructure Canvas. There are no extra accounts to set up, no appointments to schedule, and I don’t have to be tech support to get the technology working. Some of my students were using the built-in webcams on their computers for the very first time. The look of surprise when the technology just started working was priceless (it does ask them before activating the camera).

You can click on the image to see a larger view.

Four of us meet in the Tinychat plugin to Instructure Canvas for an online help session in Online Calculus.

By the way, SAVI = Synchronous Audio Visual Interaction (a term we coined at LAK 2012).

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